Radiometric dating practice problems with answers
The 6 proton 6 neutron atoms are said to have a mass of 12 and are referred to as "carbon-12." The nuclei of the remaining one percent of carbon atoms contain not six but either seven or eight neutrons in addition to the standard six protons.They have masses of 13 and 14 respectively and are referred to as "carbon-13" and "carbon-14." If two atoms have equal numbers of protons but differing numbers of neutrons, one is said to be an "isotope" of the other.
Justice can be restorative (compensatory), requiring the wrongdoer to restore the innocent victim, to the extent possible, to the same (or a similar) condition the victim was in before the wrong was committed (such as paying to repair damaged property, paying hospital bills, returning stolen goods, etc.).It is fine to hypothesize that similarities between different creatures are the result of common ancestry, but since such similarities have been and are often conflicting when compared with other features, it might be prudent to hold back a little when making conclusions about any sort of definite taxonomic classification model or even relationship.The conclusions that are drawn from the evidence are often and have often been very much exaggerated to fit personal beliefs and biases.All carbon atoms have a nucleus containing six protons.Ninety-nine percent of these also contain six neutrons.For example, in 1990, Richard Leakey himself said that, "If pressed about man's ancestry, I would have to unequivocally say that all we have is a huge question mark.
To date, there has been nothing found to truthfully purport as a transitional specie to man, including Lucy, since 1470 was as old and probably older.
When isotopes are to be designated specifically, the chemical symbol is expanded to identify the mass (for example, C is not stable.
As a result it is always undergoing natural radioactive decay while the abundances of the other isotopes are unchanged.
Taking isolated similarities by themselves, the theory of evolution appears to be quite reasonable... However, it seems that too much weight has been placed on similarities without questioning the differences.
To the embarrassment of many a very intelligent man and woman of science, overly confident conclusions and arrogant statements have been made based on such similarities that have, on occasion, turned out to be not only wrong, but painfully wrong.
Carbon-13 and carbon-14 are thus isotopes of carbon-12.